ZP Now Labeled for Clover, Below Ground Only

Josh Nelson
CPS Tangent

A few days ago Jason posted the new labels for ZP use on grasses grown for seed.  We now have a label for ZP Ag Pellets for vole control in "clover grown for seed, forage or hay; clover/grass mixtures; and pasture."  This label is for year around use but is legal for below ground, hand baiting only

Here is a link to the label.

ZP use clover is only approved in Oregon and this label is valid until December 31, 2014, unless otherwise suspended or amended by ODA.

Clover fields have had a tendency to develop a serious vole problem in the past.  Now that zinc-phosphide pellets are a legal option we can stay ahead of the voles.  Talk with your CPS fieldman about the use of ZP for vole control.

Nut Chaser on Filberts

Tanner Sheahan
CPS Tangent

We are quickly approaching optimal timing for Nut Chaser in filberts.  Nut Chaser is a foliar fertilizer blend of micronutrients developed by Joe Cacka, CPS agronomist for the Cascade/Columbia division.  Joe's research has shown that a mid-May application followed by a mid-June application gave the highest and most consistent bump in yield and kernel quality.  Nut Chaser is also compatible with all fungicides and insecticides so a special trip across the field is not necessary.

Here is a link to the sheet summarizing three years of research trials and here's a sheet showing yield data as well as the importance of calcium and boron in nut production.  The Nut Chaser label shows recommended rates and the product analysis.

Talk with your CPS fieldman about Nut Chaser rates and timing.

2010 Rust Pressure on Grass Seed

Bob Schroeder
CPS Tangent

Current weather conditions in addition to conditions we experienced last fall and winter indicate heavier rust pressure this season.  The spring epidemic of rust develops from infections that have survived the winter.  Also, rust populations are greatly influenced on fall planting dates.  The earlier the plantings, especially spring plantings, carry more rust through the winter than the later planted stands.  Warmer winters which we have experienced this year favor an earlier epidemic.
Bill Pfender of OSU has worked on developing and validating the Grass Stem Rust Estimator seen below.  USDA determines on March 15, the amount of rust present in stands that were planted in Mid September at the Hyslop Research Farm in Corvallis.  On March 15, active rust pustules per foot of row sampled equaled 1.  Last year at the same date, the number was .05 pustules per foot of row.  The previous high rust epidemic was 2005 and the count on March 15 was 22.4 pustules per foot of row.  2002 was 12.0, and 2000 was 4.0.

All the scouting work we do is important because individual fields and individual varieties may have higher levels of rust than observed in the research plots, but the plots do give a good early indication of the severity of the rust epidemics that we can expect.  We are already finding some rust in "ideal" situations.

As a preventative treatment, it is a good practice to include a fungicide in your programs when making a growth regulator application on ryegrass and fescue fields. 

USDA Rust Model  April 28, 2010
(Click on the graph above to enlarge)

The lower graph shows the model's calculation for plant growth, which is very important in rust development. The graph shows the lengths, in inches, of: (red line) sheath number 2, (green line) flag sheath, and (blue line) flower head plus stem. The modeled timing of emergence for these plant parts, which should match approximately your field observations, can be adjusted by altering the date in the Date of flag sheath emergence box near the top of the web page. Dates refer to the time when approximately 25% of tillers show the indicated development.  The graph also shows the number of possible generations of rust development (purple line, right-hand y axis), which gives an indication of the reproductive potential of rust disease under this year's weather conditions.

The model makes two estimates of active rust levels (left y axis): those that are visible (red line), and a total (green line) which includes visible rust as well as infections that will become visible only after the latent period elapses. Dead, non-sporulating pustules are not included in the rust estimates. Visible disease levels above about 2000 cause economic loss to the seed crop. To avoid reaching these levels, we estimate that fungicides should first be applied when the green (total infections) line first crosses the purple (action threshold) line. Additional sprays should be applied at intervals of 14-17 days or more, when the green line again reaches the action threshold. Please note that this action level is provisional, and we have not yet verified it across a range of circumstances. The daily infection factor (blue bars, with scale on the right y axis) is a measure of the favorability of daily weather for rust infection. Maximum fungicide action will occur when fungicide is applied within a few days of high-infection weather.

Talk with your CPS fieldman about fungicide timings and overall rust control is your grass seed crops this year.  With the unexpected early stripe rust pressure in wheat, we may be in for high disease year.

Zinc Phosphide Label Update

Jason Bennett
CPS Tangent

Wanted to give everybody an update on the Zinc Phosphide Label for above ground use in grass seed.  We received word from Michael Babbitt at ODA, that ODA and USFW had made a decision to allow the application of ZP above ground use to begin May 1st through August 31st.  Last year ODA did not allow the above ground use until May 8th, because of the few geese that were hanging around late last year.

To allow the use of ZP on May 1st they made some changes to the label which is address in the text below.  This is part of the letter that was sent from ODA to EPA.
After much debating about the first date of when the application of  zinc phosphide above-ground on grass grown for seed should be allowed, it was decided that because it is an El Nino year and the grass is becoming very tall, that the start up date should be May 1. 

The label states, "APPLICATIONS ARE ONLY ALLOWED FROM MAY 1 THROUGH AUGUST 31". Please note, any above-ground application of zinc phosphide to grass grown for seed prior to May 1 would be considered a serious violation. 

Also, because of concerns expressed by United States Fish and Wildlife Service, the following statement,  "Do not make applications if geese or other migratory birds have been observed in the field within the last seven (7) days", has been changed to, "Do not make applications if geese or other migratory birds have been observed in the field within the last fourteen (14) days".

Again wanted point out the label change went from no migratory birds or geese seen in the last 7 days to 14 days now.  Below are the links to the 2 different labels.
Motomco Label
Bell Laboratories Label

Spotted-Wing drosophila

Taylor Hulse
Crop Production Services
The Drosophila suzukii (aka: spotted-wing drosophila, vinegar fly, dragon fruit fly), is the newest threat to Oregon Agriculture, namely, Oregon’s fruit industry. As many of you have heard, this pesky fly has the ability to deposit her eggs in many fresh, ripening berries- when no other species of fruit fly would be able to. There has been documented infestation in Blueberries, Raspberries, Boysenberries, Strawberries, Blackberries, Cherries, Elderberries, Apples, Pears, Nectarines, Peaches, Plums, Grapes, Tomatoes, and possibly Oranges (just to name a few). The significance of this fly has yet to be realized as it showed up only last year and has yet to have the needed time to fully establish itself. Population numbers are already far beyond eradication, leaving suppression and attempted control as our only options.

Originally from Japan and Southeast Asia, the SWD (spotted-wing drosophila) made its way to Hawaii in the 1980’s and was confirmed in Florida, California, Italy, and France last year. In August of 2009, the fly was found in British Columbia, Washington and 12 counties in Oregon (mostly along the I-5 corridor, but as far away as Wasco and Umatilla counties).

All female fruit flies have an ovipositor that allows them to deposit their eggs; most often in rotting fruit that’s skin is already punctured. What separates the SWD female fly is her serrated edged ovipositor that enables her to literally ‘saw’ through ripe/ripening fruit. The eggs she deposits then hatch within 1-3 days and begin feeding, causing a depression in the skin of the fruit and leading to secondary infections.

There is no tolerance for SWD eggs or larva in fruit, therefore prevention is the only solution. It is important to note that while you may control all SWD within your orchard or field, they are still infesting the wild blackberries in ditches and in fencerows. Therefore, when your insecticide wears off, the flies will be available to immediately re-infest your orchard or field. Any approach to suppression or control will have to include wild blackberries and other wild host plants.

For more detailed information regarding the SWD lifecycle, control options, temperature dependence, etc., visit Oregon State University’s SWD website: OSU SWD Website

While there is much more information regarding this fly, the overall purpose of this article is to let you, our valued customers know that we are aware of this new pest and are currently developing strategies to keep your crops protected and SWD free. Rest assured, CPS carries all of the required products and expertise that you may need. Please call with any questions or additional information regarding our systematic approach to SWD control.

Stripe Rust Update

Tanner Sheahan
CPS Tangent

About a month ago I posted some pictures of the first stripe rust showing up in Goetze winter wheat and the description of HTAP by Jim Peterson.  We are now finding stripe rust nearly everywhere, not necessarily in every single field but certainly across the whole Valley.

Stripe Rust infection point. 20 Apr 2010

 The initial infection points, like this one near Monroe, are quite easy to spot.  The bright yellow is about the size of a bushel basket but infected leaves and pustules can be found farther out from the center.

Close-up of Stripe Rust. 20 Apr 2010

Looking closely at the center of these hot spots you can see how severe it really is.  The lower leaves have completely senesced due to both stripe rust and septoria.

Stripe Rust in leaf sheath. 20 Apr 2010

On the more infected plants you can find stripe rust pustules inside the leaf sheath.  This serves the disease by infecting newer leaves as they are growing out of the sheath.

Just to reiterate, it takes 50 degree night temperatures and 68 degree daytime temperatures and the adult plant growth stage for the HTAP resistance to kick in for these winter wheat varieties.  It may be a while before we have those temperatures consistently.

While many of these later initial infection points are quite small they can blow up quickly.  It is important that you talk with your CPS fieldman about fungicide timing especially if you have stripe rust showing up now.

Linn Soil & Water Hosts Goose Predation Meeting

Tanner Sheahan
CPS Tangent

Last week I attended a meeting Tuesday evening hosted by the Linn County Soil and Water Conservation District concerning goose depredation on crops here in the Valley.  There were several people from the government agencies responsible for monitoring and maintaining the goose population present at the meeting.  The time was set aside to give growers a chance to voice concerns about goose damage to their crops.

Goose damage to winter wheat. Picture taken 23 Mar 2010.
There is no doubt that goose pressure on our crops is becoming a greater concern here.  With government mandates through the International Migratory Bird Treaty to increase the total goose population by nearly 100,000 birds and the increasing acres that are going into the Wetland Reserve Program it is likely to get much worse.  One issue that was brought up is that the amount of food plot acreage on WRP ground is restricted by law to 5%.  This would mean that a 300 acre wetland would only be allowed to provide 15 acres of feed.

There were not a lot of helpful answers regarding crop losses to growers.  There is however an ODFW Goose Control Task Force that was formed to give growers and landowners an official, political voice on this matter.  It was mentioned several times by the government officials present at the meeting that they "had no political clout" when it came to voicing grower's concerns but that "we" as growers and landowners and private citizens do. 

Crop depredation by geese in the Willamette Valley will only increase as a greater percentage of the migratory population makes this Valley their winter home and not just a pit stop.  So how do we as an industry and local economy deal with a problem that, by definition, could be viewed by growers as an invasive species?  The geese have not historically congregated here in such numbers and certainly cause significant economic damage.  With so many wetlands being developed all over the Valley there are new local flyways being created that are bringing larger populations of geese into new areas resulting in crop damage to fields that have not historically had a problem.

At this point I think it is important for growers to begin gathering some evidence of goose damage on your fields.  Take some pictures of damaged crops or total stand loss and put some actual dollar costs to it.    Contact the Goose Control Task Force and voice your concerns about crop damage and the costs of protecting your crop.  Regulations almost always trend towards more restrictions and it is much easier to affect regulations before they are set in stone but it will take a loud concerted effort by growers to get our concerns heard.

For your convenience I'm listing the government officials that attended the meeting with their contact information.  These folks should be able to answer your questions and hear your concerns.   

Steven Smith & Molly Monroe:
     US Fish and Wildlife - Willamette Refuge Complex - Finley
     (541) 757-7236
Jim Young:
     ODFW - Access & Habitat Program - Adair Village
     (541) 757-4186 ext. 237
Brandon Reishus:
     ODFW - Salem - Game Bird Program
     (503) 947-6324
Gary Briggs:
     NRCS - Wetland Reserve Program - Tangent Office
     (541) 967-5925

Wheat Commodity Report for Oregon

Jason Bennett
CPS Tangent

USDA released March 2010 a Commodity report for Oregon.  The report gives a detailed summary for the last 5 years for the State.  This link will direct you to view the Wheat Commodity Report for Oregon.  This report is more specific by County for the State of Oregon.  The report lists detailed information by County for Wheat yields, Acres, Revenue.

This link will direct you the Extension Service Oregon Agriculture Information Network (OAIN).  From the link you will see that you can find an abundant of information on other commodities.  Also you will see there is a commodity report for grass seed.  The site also has other useful links.

EPA Denies Palisade Section 18

Tanner Sheahan
CPS Tangent

A few weeks ago I posted a picture and short article about Joe Cacka setting up a research trial to gather data to back a Palisade label on wheat.  Syngenta is applying for a Section 3 federal label for Palisade that may be approved in 2011 or 2012.  We have also been waiting with bated breath to hear back from EPA regarding a Section 18 Emergency Exemption request for Palisade on wheat in Oregon for the 2010 growing season.  EPA has denied it.  I am posting the complete response from EPA below and I'll let you read it for yourself. 

If you have any concerns or opinions you can contact Anthony Britten of EPA directly by clicking his name below. 

This is the email from Anthony Britten of EPA to Rose Kachadoorian of ODA:

I'm fine if you share this email with all the growers who have contacted
you, including Tammy and the commodity association folks.  It is
basically a tightened-up version of  what I sent you on 3/30.

I regret we have been unable to find a path forward to granting the
Section 18 request.  We are definitely sympathetic to the market forces
and pest pressures facing growers, who more than most, experience "the
slings and arrows of outrageous fortune."  But as you know, we must be
able to document that there is an "urgent and non-routine event"
resulting in a "significant economic loss" compared to the routine
situation.  EPA senior officials must, in turn, sign-off that the
situation meets our regulatory criteria.  So Section 18s do face a high

Basically, we'd need to get closer to a typical emergency scenario to
move any further on this request.  As much as possible, we'd need to
hold the variables to a minimum when considering the situation before
and after the emergency event.   A simplified example of a typical
specific exemption is:

- 10,000 acres of "x" has been in production for several years in "x"
- The avg harvest has been 100 bushels an acre.
-  An unusual pest-related emergency (non-routine and urgent) has
-  There is data to show that this emergency event can reduce yields or
gross revenues by 20% or more (say, avg yields 70-80 bushels per acre),
or net operating revenues by 50% or more (a more data-intensive
-  An applicant can select a subset of acreage to show localized
effects, and these data might serve as a basis for allowing emergency
use on more than just those affected acres.

The big challenge for this 18, though, is the urgent and non-routine
aspect.  Unconventional "pests" are always a challenge compared more
typical pests (insects, weeds, and plant pathogens) where it is easier
to document pest pressures and their causes.  In the case of plant
pathogens, for example, we know from experience that there is a
correlation between unusually wet weather at particular times in the
crop cycle and a disease outbreak, as well as how an outbreak affects
yields compared to a typical growing season.

Since there is no baseline for lodging, it's hard to demonstrate that
any given year has had unusual pest pressure, or that the pest pressure
was caused by an urgent / non-routine event, or that the losses meet the
economic thresholds.  (I think this is also the first section 18 request
that EPA has ever received for lodging.)

In our teleconference on this 18 request, late season winds were cited
as a major cause for lodging during the 2009 growing season.   I don't
know how we'd document that high winds are an urgent and non-routine
event unless they are tied to a very unusual weather pattern.

I'm assuming El Nino was not a factor in the 2009 losses cited by the
extension agent.  We also didn't see any clear pattern of yield losses
in 2009.   Looking at the OSU data on yields for the last several years,
the trend is showing higher yields per acre, with the highest being in
2009.   While there was possible evidence of quality losses, these
didn't look especially high to our economists.  See link/attachment.
(See attached file: Willamette Valley-Production and Values, 02-09.xls)

In terms of looking for a correlation between lodging and an urgent,
non-routine event (like weather), the Power Point from ODA's
meteorologist suggests 2010 is a typical El Nino year,  and he cites a
number of previous analog El Nino weather events, the most recent being
in 2003 and going back as far as 1912.

It might help the argument some if there were data showing that a
previous El Nino event resulted in dramatically reduced yields or
excessively high harvesting costs due to lodging, particularly if the El
Nino year started off, like this one, with warmer temperatures in
January / February.   Unless this year's El Nino is an incredibly unique
weather pattern, I'd think there would have been some documented losses
in the past due to excessive lodging.   Still, the baseline issue
remains a problem.

In this case, it seems that market forces, including the collapse of the
grass seed market and the resulting 7 fold increase in the number of
acres being farmed to wheat, have increased the risk for lodging due to:
1) the movement of crop into more marginal growing areas and the use of
varieties that are susceptible to lodging; 2) earlier planting to
accommodate the increased number of acres and thus taller wheat; and 3)
denser stands, which appear to have resulted  in higher yields per acre
over the last several years.

Historically EPA has not factored market forces into Section 18
decisions because they are not pest or environmental conditions
consistent with FIFRA.  EPA has also interpreted expanding acreage as
inconsistent with "emergencies" due to heavy pest pressures and
significant economic losses.   If the purpose of the Section 18 program
were reinterpreted as a mechanism to help expand acreage for a
commodity, then the number of requests for these expedited chemical
reviews and decisions would greatly increase.  Used for crop expansion,
Section 18s would then pull more resources away from the normal and
preferred process for bringing new pesticide products to market (the
full Section 3 registration process).  It would also reduce EPA's
ability to address emergency pest pressures that are contracting the
historical acres, yields, revenues for certain commodities.

All that said, if there is something we've overlooked, or you have more
data, please do let me know, and I'll re-engage, though I realize by now
that the use season is rapidly moving.  It also still isn't clear that
HED could make a safety finding decision in time for the use season.
Again, I regret I'm not the bearer of better news.   

Here is a summary description establishing a "baseline" of economic losses due to lodging that was submitted to EPA by University and industry personnel such as OSU extension agent Mark Melbye and CPS fieldman Bob Spinney:

Direct Yield Loss

As indicated in the discussion of anticipated significant economic loss
(submitted March 2, 2010), direct yield losses in small grain crops due
to lodging range from 10%-40%. In 2009 the yield loss measured ranged
from $149/acre to $240/acre. In poorly drained soils, wheat is ridge
planted. It is physically impossible to harvest ridge planted lodged

Increased Harvest Costs

There are also significant economic losses due to additional harvest
costs. Normally 3 acres can be harvested per hour, the combine speed is
approximately 2.5 mph.  However, in heavily lodged wheat or triticale,
combine speeds are reduced from 2.5 mph down to 0.25 to 0.5 mph,
depending on the severity of lodging and yield of the crop.  Typically
it cost $31.43/acre to harvest wheat; however these costs can be up to
$314/acre in heavily lodged wheat. The added costs of harvesting lodged
grain exceed the actual direct crop loss.

Increased Harvest Time

Because it takes longer to harvest each affected fields, harvesting is
delayed in many fields. This delay increases the risk of weather related
grain damage, including: sprouting, black tip, and grain shrivel, which
adversely affect market grade. Mature wheat is exposed to environmental
problems and increased pest pressures, which reduces grain quality. For
example, pre-harvesting sprouting levels as low as 2 to 5% may result in
the rejection of the grain at local elevators.  Growers are then left to
sell the grain for feed value, which is substantially lower than the
market price for US# 1 and #2 wheat.
In these numbers I see a potential loss of $554/acre not including the added risk of losing an entire crop to weather because it takes so much longer to harvest.  I guess EPA does not find that loss to be significant enough to "find a path" to move forward with the Palisade section 18.

USDA Releases 2010 Prospective Planting Report for USA

Jason Bennett
CPS Tangent

The USDA released the Prospective Plantings report for 2010 at the end of March.  The report gives acres/trends for all the major commodities planted in the USA, by State for the last 3 years.  Here is a summary of the report, to view the actually report click on the link below.  There is an abundant amount of information in the report but very interesting to read.
WASHINGTON (April 1, 2010) – The USDA’s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) released its 2010 Prospective Plantings report this week. U.S. farmers are expected to plant a record high 78.1 million acres of soybeans this spring. A significant decrease is expected for wheat acres. USDA projects this will be the smallest total number of acres planted with wheat since 1970.    

NASS expects that the total area planted to principal crops nationwide will hold steady at 319.5 million acres, after declining 5.7 million acres in 2009. While a record number of soybean acres are expected to be planted this year, this is actually just a 1 percent increase from last year’s previous record. Acres planted with corn are expected to increase 3 percent to 88.8 million acres. If these acres are planted, this will be the second-largest number of acres planted with corn since 1947.

The largest soybean acreage increases are expected in Kansas, up 400,000 acres, and Iowa, up 300,000. Increases of 100,000 or more acres are also expected in Illinois, Nebraska, North Dakota and South Dakota.

Expected corn acreage is up in many states due to reduced winter wheat acreage and growers’ expectations of higher net returns. Increases of 300,000 or more corn acres are expected in Illinois, Kansas, Missouri and Ohio. Iowa continues to lead the nation with 13.5 million corn acres, despite an expected drop of 200,000 acres from 2009.

NASS estimates 2010 cotton plantings at 10.5 million acres, up 15 percent from last year. Wheat acreage is expected to decline 9 percent to 53.8 million acres. NASS expects the area planted to winter wheat to be down 13 percent from last year.

The Prospective Plantings report provides the first official, survey-based estimates of U.S. farmers’ planting intentions for the year. NASS surveyed approximately 86,000 farm operators across the country during the first two weeks of March. On June 30, NASS will release the Acreage report which will show statistics on the actual acres planted in 2010.
 Click Here to view the Prospective Planting Report

Brown Rot and Spotted Wing Drosophila

Tanner Sheahan
CPS Tangent

I got a call today from Ross Penhallegon, Lane County OSU Extension Horticulture Agent, giving us a heads up to severe Brown Rot Blossom Blight in cherries this year. 

Ross quoted Jay Pscheidt on his blog, Gardening Hints for Oregon:

More brown rot blossom blight on cherry trees out on our experiment farm (in Corvallis) than I have ever seen in 22 years. Trees have anywhere from 50 to 90% of the blossoms blighted where there has been no fungicide application. 
Jay Pscheidt -OSU
We don't have a lot of cherries in this part of the Valley, relative to our other crops, but this information is crucial for cherry producers.  This is not the year to skimp on your fungicide program!

An insect pest that is becoming a very serious problem for fruit producers in the region is the Spotted Wing Drosophila, an invasive species of the fruit fly.  The SWD has gotten a lot buzz lately due to how fast it has invaded fruit producing regions across the Western US; here is a map of its distribution in Oregon.  The SWD completes its life cycle from egg to fertile adult in as little as a week in temperatures between 68 and 86 degrees.  Adult females have the capacity to lay 350 eggs, only laying 1-3 eggs per fruit.  Fortunately our temperatures tend to be on the low side for that development speed this time of year but it gives you an idea of how quickly this pest can take off.  The SWD has been known to infest ripening cherry, raspberry, blackberry, blueberry, and strawberry crops; it has also been observed attacking other soft-flesh fruit such as boysenberry, varieties of Japanese plums, plumcots, and nectarines

Talk with your CPS fieldman if you have any questions about Brown Rot or Spotted Wing Drosophila.

Part-time Fumigation Trainee opening

Curt Dannen
CPS  4/8/10
As many of you know, we are back to fumigating warehouses again. Since we have started fumigating with the new product "Profume" we are finding this process to be more labor intensive and requiring specialized training in these applications. Since our current sales & operational staff is quite busy, we have decided to look for a helper to assist our "chief fumigator", Ira Zipperer.  This position will primarily be weekend work, that also spills over into the weekday. It is not full-time in nature, but the schedule is driven by demand and seasons. Ideally someone who is not looking for full-time work, but wanting something with limited hours would be ideal.  Below is a description of what we need and credentials we would like that person to achieve.  There is more information about the fumigation process here.
Position description:
Fumigation Applicator Trainee - Valid ODL reqd, prefer Class C CDL w/Haz Mat endorsement or willing to obtain.  Applicant must be willing to obtain Oregon Commercial Pesticide Application license w/IIH Space Fumigation endorsement. Able to operate or learn to operate mobile laptop computer, monitoring and injection equipment, and train on proper and safe use of SCBA equipment. Seal and prepare seed and grain warehouses for fumigation of rodents and other pests. Willing to climb ladders and work out of a man cage to plug holes in building. Experience in forklift operation. Basic math skills for calculating cubic feet in a building. Basic mechanical skills to operate simple hand tools and power tools (drill, circular saw, etc). Able to drive a one ton truck pulling a 14' cargo trailer with placarded fumigant. Ability to handle 200# cylinders with aid of others or lifting mechanisms. Candidate must pass both a pre-employment drug screen and criminal background check. This is  primarily a weekend position and will be ongoing.

If you know of anyone who might be interested in this position have them call Curt Dannen at the Tangent Branch 541-928-3391.

Link to Weather Data Added

Tanner Sheahan

We've added a link to the Weather Data page that will take you to a series of tables compiling weather data collected by the network of weather stations maintained by CPS's AdCon division.  The data on this site is updated daily so check it out on a regular basis to see daily, weekly, and monthly summaries of rainfall, temperatures, and heat units.