Tractor Safety Class for Youth

Tractor Safety Class
Two classes to choose from:
June 6th - 7th   OR   June 13th -14th  
9am to 3pm
Santiam Christian High School
Library and Science Building
7226 Arnold Avenue
Corvallis, OR 97330

Park in the Prince of Peace Church parking lot
Cost: $50
Bring a lunch and a pen or pencil
Tractor Safety Youth License provided upon completion

Email Mrs. Carson at
for more information – all students MUST pre-register

Space is limited to 20 students per class.  

Wireless Nitrate Soil Sensor

Jammie Wutzke
CPS Tangent

Yesterday I attended the Southern Willamette Valley Groundwater Management Area committee meeting for the first time with an interest in mind to learn more about a Wireless Nitrate Sensor developed by Calden Carroll Stimpson . Calden was working on his doctorate in supramolecular chemistry at U of O when he discovered he could detect Nitrate, which at the time he thought was an accident. He learned while giving his defense, the ability to detect nitrate was a big deal and has lead him to developing a business, Suprasensor Technologies. Calden is not to market with the product yet, he stressed the technology was still in alpha testing, but will be out doing field testing for real world applications. Just in agriculture alone there is a huge potential for this type of sensing to know enough nitrate in is the root zone and reduce wasted applications of fertilizer all from the convenience of a smart phone. 
Calden Carroll Stimpson with sample nitrate sensors

White Clover Plot Tour

Please join the CPS Tangent team for a quick look at row spraying established white clover.  The tour is Wednesday May 21st @ 4pm.   The plot in on the corner of Roberts rd and Boston Mill rd, just east of Shedd.  We are going to look at 5 different chemicals and 2 different row spray timings in the spring to create rows in established white clover.
Look forward to seeing you there

Jason Bennett
Tangent CPS

Septoria Leaf Blotch Flares Up in Winter Wheat

Septoria Leaf Blotch, Septoria tritici
Tanner Sheahan
CPS Tangent

One thing is certain in farming: change.

Over the last week we have seen a dramatic flare-up of Septoria Leaf Blotch (Septoria tritici) that seems more severe in certain winter wheat varieties in the Willamette Valley with the weather conditions this spring. The rain over the weekend will favor the disease. (Click on pictures to enlarge.)

Stripe Rust, Puccinia striiformis

Typically Stripe Rust (Puccinia striiformis) has been our major concern in recent years. We've seen previously stripe rust resistant varieties like Foote, and more recently Goetze, suddenly break down in the face of newer races of stripe rust (See, How Goetze Stripe Resistance Works). It seems we may be seeing a similar development with Septoria tritici.

Surverying a grower's field
On Wednesday the Tangent field staff went out with Chris Mundt (OSU Plant Pathologist) and Mike Flowers (OSU Extension Cereals Specialist) looked at some infected fields as well as our variety trial at our research farm on Hwy 34. I asked Chris if he would mind writing up a synopsis of what we're seeing, here is his response.

Chris Mundt,  
OSU Plant Pathologist

Discussing the disease cycle
Many current wheat disease issues in the Willamette Valley trace back to the arrival of a new population of stripe rust races in the mid-2000s.  These races are both more aggressive and also overwinter better than old races and thus caused significant epidemics.  Serious rust outbreaks caused by these races resulted in a substantial increase in the number of fungicide applications. Though this increased fungicide use was targeted more towards stripe rust, they also impacted Septoria, a pathogen that is particularly vulnerable to development of fungicide resistance.  Stripe rust problems also caused a shift away from rust-susceptible varieties such as Tubbs 06 and Goetze.

Looking at our variety trial
Septoria isolates were sampled from fungicide timing trials in 2012 to determine if increased fungicide use had resulted in selection for fungicide resistance.  For early-season collections (prior to fungicide application), approximately 8% of Septoria isolates collected from the Hyslop Farm and approximately 60% of isolates collected from a trial near Cornelius were found to be resistant to the strobilurin fungicide azoxystrobin.  After two applications of an azoxystrobin-containing fungicide, the frequency of resistance increased to about 25% at Hyslop and 98% in Cornelius. Experience in Europe has shown that strobilurin resistance is caused by a single mutation and conditions resistance to all strobilurin fungicides.  Preliminary evaluation of isolates collected this year suggest that strobilurin resistance has increased considerably since 2012. Based on these results and experience in Europe, it is unlikely that strobilurin fungicides will provide protection from Septoria for much longer. Strobilurins still provide very good control of stripe rust, however.

Septoria across an entire field.
We also evaluated Septoria isolates for sensitivity to propiconazole, the active ingredient in “Tilt” and its generics.  High levels of resistance to triazole fungicides require multiple mutations in the fungus. Evaluation of 2012 isolates showed that two applications of propiconazole significantly reduced the sensitivity of Septoria to propiconazole, though the impact of this on disease control is difficult to evaluate.  On a more positive note, strong cross resistance does not occur among all triazole fungicides. In fact, we recently found that there is not strong cross resistance among the triazole fungicides propiconazole, tebuconazole, and prothioconazole.   In addition, fungicides with a new mode of action, the succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (SDHIs), have recently become available for Septoria control.

Notice severity in lower leaves
Weather conditions this cropping season have influenced disease patterns on different wheat varieties. Cold winter temperatures delayed the onset of stripe rust, and rust has been much lower than in recent years.  Septoria levels were generally low earlier in the year (with some notable exceptions in specific fields), but has come on very strongly in the last few weeks.  Fields of Goetze have often looked very good because of low rust pressure.  In addition, susceptibility of wheat varieties to Septoria is greatly increased by the stress associated with previous infection by stripe rust.  Thus, the resistance of Goetze to Septoria has been expressed in 2014 due to the low levels of stripe rust.  In contrast, large amounts of Septoria have been seen in some fields of SY Ovation. Ovation is a variety with high yield potential and good stripe rust resistance, providing positive performance in years when rust is the
Worked ground right, no-till left
main disease issue. However, data from elite nurseries in 2012 and 2013 indicate that Ovation is susceptible to Septoria. Performance of Kaseberg in 2014 has generally been consistent with previous observations suggesting intermediate levels of resistance to stripe rust and Septoria. There are other observations from 2014 that are yet to be explained, for example, the unusually large variation in Septoria levels among fields and large amounts of Septoria in some fields even though they were sprayed with a non-strobilurin fungicide.

Plenty of Septoria to be found

Multiple collaborative projects among the Wheat Breeding, Cereal Pathology, and Cereal Extension programs at OSU are underway to identify improved genetic strategies to attain high levels of durable resistance to major wheat diseases, with stripe rust and Septoria receiving significant emphasis.

A big thanks to Chris Mundt and Mike Flowers for being willing to respond quickly and spend some time with us in the field. If you have questions or concerns please talk with your CPS Fieldman.

Aerial Imagery

Jammie Wutzke
CPS Tangent

Drones have been in the media a lot these days, pickup any agriculture magazine or on occasion see a clip on a major television network and UAV’s (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-“Drones”) are being touted for their uses in capturing imagery on crops and used in precision farming application. The legality of flying UAV’s is questionable at best, and we expect at some time in the future FAA will establish policy in the operation of UAV’s for commercial purposes. Aerial Imagery is not a new technology there are several ways to collect imagery either by satellite which is typically about 5 to 10 meter resolution or from a fix wing aircraft with resolution of 1 meter down to inches.   CPS has been working with Eagle Digital Imaging, a family business based out of Corvallis, since 2006. CPS first looked at vineyard imagery in the North Willamette Valley to identify vigor variability across the wine grape blocks. Later followed with spring imagery timing on Grass Seed with in the intentions to make variable rate applications of Plant Growth Regulators. This was a great tool for us to create zone maps and establish rates according to crop health, vigor and crop density. Eagle Digital Imaging President David Shear, his wife Cheryl and son Colin, Director of Operations, along with a team of 9 employees are working on providing imagery on a new mobile platform to be used by fieldmen, growers and all interested parties. This new delivery method would enable users to evaluate images at the speed of business.  Eagle Digital Imaging has the ability to act quickly with a fleet of 3 efficient Mooney aircraft and delivers a quick turn around on high quality images, but the ability to quickly view images on a mobile device out in the field or at the office gives users an edge in getting the maximum benefit from the data captured and a means of analysis of multiple imagery shots throughout the growing season. Also, considerations are being made to include imagery from historic sources outside of Eagle Digital Imagery and from UAV’s (drones) collections.  Please contact your fieldmen if you would like to know more about imagery applications or would like to capture imagery on your fields.
Eagle Digital Imaging Staff
Example of Aerial Imagery from Eagle Digital Imaging

Seed Council Fills Research Position

Tangent CPS would like to welcome Steve in his new venture as the head of the Research Program for the Seed Council. Salisbury to Head Seed Council Research Program

Grain Market Commentary from Dan Steiner of PGG

Tanner Sheahan
CPS Tangent

Last week I contacted Dan Steiner from Pendleton Grain Growers to ask him if he would mind writing up a broad outlook commentary on our grain markets. I am subscribed to Dan's daily market analysis emails which contain similar commentary on very current market conditions and a nice summary table of current grain prices at major ports. Send him an email if you would like to subscribe as well. Dan has a pulse on the grain markets and his daily commentaries are a great way to keep up on the trends and how they might play out at the local, Pacific Northwest, level.

Dan Steiner
Pendleton Grain Growers 
US: Spring is finally showing up across the country. Lets start by focusing a bit just on US production….

Here is what we KNOW: In the last week the Southern plains have been as cold as low 30’s as hot as upper 90’s. HRW production looks like it will be similar to last years production. Throw out last falls condition reports…they were meaningless other than as a comparative guide when they came out. Dry fall, COLD spring, freezing temperatures mean a HRW crop around 750 myn bu and it won’t get BIGGER…but could still get smaller! Disease isn’t an issue because its been too dry. SRW crop will be about 110 myn bu smaller than last years crop. Because the corn was planted so late, meant a late harvest. Late harvest meant fewer SRW acres. The SRW crop is looking DANDY…but just a lot fewer acres. Too early to tell at this time about the DNS in the northern plains. SWW? Well lets just say this…the crop condition reports we mentioned earlier that were meaningless for HRW? Ditto for SWW. COLD / DRY / OPEN winter took its toll. I have seen reports that many parts of Washington look worse than they have the last 10 years. In Oregon we have small regions that look really good…but not good enough to offset the areas that will be below average. The SWW carryouts are tighter than the USDA is counting them, and this years production will be underwhelming. Corn acres will get planted, but there are questions regarding the size/ number of acres. Right now the estimate most commonly used is 91.7 myn acres. Spec position in Chicago Corn, wheat are VERY large. Today the market looks overbought. SRW today is about +$35/ mt (.90/ bu) vs. world markets. HRW is about +$85/ mt. ($2.30/ bu). At least to compete with Russia/ France and Ukraine.

Here is what we DON’T KNOW: Final production numbers on wheats/ corn are still very much a guess. The markets will react (sometimes violently) to the whims of politicians. A stroke of the political pen can make or wipe out fortunes. Long term ‘Summer weather’. When will rail logistics get straightened out? Long term impact of Ukrainian situation. Today, its more or less business as usual, but tighter credit, unsettled political issues etc are NOT conducive to big production. Look for Ukraine, even with good weather to be less competition than last year. Aussie has benefitted from nice late rains, but they are in winter now, and LOOONNG way from harvest.

Every grain company, market analyst, broker, trading house etc. has an opinion on what production might be, and what that would likely mean to price. USDA reports will sway those opinions to a certain degree, but at the end of the day ‘listening to what the market has to say’ is invaluable. Each year at grower meetings we poll growers to see what they ‘think’ the Average Aug Price of SWW might be…This year we had well over 60 guesses. Only 2 were higher than today’s prices. What is interesting to me…is 2015. You can sell Chic Sept 15 futures today at $7.50 and the Dec at near $7.60, which means with just an average basis, you can get better than $8 PORTLAND for next years SWW.
***Traders Rule of Thumb***When the market quits going up on positive news, the market is probably due for a correction…

Wheat Leaf Diseases

Bob Schroeder
CPS Tangent

Pycnidia of Septoria tritici
Lesions of Stagonospora nodorum

Many of you may have read the article last year on the blog that described the identity of Stagonospora nodorum.  On the head of the wheat plant it is commonly referred to as glume blotch.  With the conditions we have experienced so far this season, we again are seeing and will continue to see large amounts of nodurum as well as Septoria tritici.  Septoria tritici is primarily a leaf pathogen, but it too can affect wheat heads.  The Stagonospora nodurum commonly affects both foliage and heads.  Both fungi can occur within the same field and on the same plants.  Yield reductions can be greater than 10-30% where fungicides are not used.  Pycnidia are the spore producing structures of the fungus which in the case of S triciti are visible to the naked eye.  They are most noticeable following periods of rain and dew and are spread in these wet and windy conditions.  S. nodurum infections start as small dark brown flecks that expand into lens shaped lesions.  Lesions are usually surrounded by a distinct yellow halo.  The lesions have pycnidia also but are difficult to see without the use of a hands lens.  Lesions of both Septoria tritici and Stagonospora nodurum can rapidly expand and kill portions of leaves or entire leaves.
When one or both fungi invade the heads of wheat, the disease is referred to as glume blotch.  Infection by tritici is highly dependent on temperature and cool wet conditions of which we have had a lot this year so far. Some of the heavier seeded fields, with thick canopies of vegetation and high fertility have provided the disease with ideal conditions to be a problem.  Infections start in the lower leaves of the plant and move up until high temperatures become limiting.  The Nodorum occurs over a wide temperature range but is highly dependent on the plant state of development.  Infections increase about the time that plants are in the "boot stage" of development.

Foliar infections serve as a launching point to head infection which makes protecting the flag leaf especially important as well as the F1 and F2 leaves that precede the flag leaf.  The wet and windy weather contributes to the spreading of the diseases whereas the dry weather tends to slow it or completely halt it.
Timing of fungicide application plays an important role in determining the level of disease control.  For the best results, scout your fields early and often to monitor the amount of Septoria tritici and Stagonospora present while at the same time paying attention to the weather trends and stage of plant growth for all varieties of wheat in the Willamette Valley.

ODA Approves SLNs for ZP Baits

Pat Boren
CPS Tangent

We received an email today from ODA regarding the approval of broadcast applications of various ZP Baits for vole control. Here is a PDF copy of the Grass Seed Advisory for ZP baits issued by ODA. The approved SLNs are linked below.

Here are the labels for the products approved by ODA:

ZP Ag Pellets Broadcast Application SLN (Bell) Motomco label here.
Prozap Pellets Broadcast Application SLN (Hacco)
Prozap Oat Bait Broadcast Application SLN (Hacco)

Since voles can be a very serious problem in our seed and grain production fields, it is very important that we continue to steward these products well. Please talk with your CPS Fieldman for more information on broadcast applications of ZP bait.